Men face enormous psychological problems rather than
the sperm abnormalities. Even though here are many
factors involved in male infertility, oligospermia
and varicoceles are very common clinical conditions
seen ever day’s practice.
Most of the males with
infertility problems, have problem in sexual intercourse
such as impotence, premature ejaculation, dyspareunia
and the painful intercourse. Psychlogical and sexual
perversions can contribute to infertility, although
these conditions are usually treatable. Retrograde
ejaculation occurs when the muscles of the urethra
do not pump properly during orgasm and sperm are forced
backward into the bladder instead of forward out of
the urethra. This condition can occur temporarily
due to the chemical medications, diabetes, multiple
sclerosis, bladder neck or prostate surgery.
Stress may interfere with the hormones
and reduce sperm counts. Smoking impairs sperm motility
and reduces sperm lifespan. Narcotics, panprak, alcohol
may reduce sperm count. Obesity and excessive endurance
exercise may also reduce sperm production. Low levels
of dietary selenium and zinc, which are necessary
for the formation and maturation of sperm, are associated
with an increased risk of infertility. Vitamin C deficiency
causes sperms to clump together (agglutinate), which
Varicocele is a major
cause of male infertility and occurs when a vein that
carries blood out of the scrotum dilates, much like
a varicose vein in another location. As a result,
a pool of blood forms around the testicles, raising
the temperature of the scrotum. The elevated temperature
hinders the maturation process of sperm. Sperms develop
best in an environment that is slightly cooler than
diseases can trigger events leading to male infertility.
Mumps after puberty causes damage to the testicles.
A reduced amount of ejaculated semen may cause inflammation
of the seminal vesicles. Semen that does not liquefy
properly can result from infections or from sperm
antibodies. Chronic prostatitis- the inflammation
of the prostrate gland, can also cause sperm motility
Ductal blockage is a very common feature.
An infection in the testes may leave scar tissue that
blocks the epididymis. Congenital abnormality may
occur in the minute ducts, that carry sperm from the
testicles to the penis.
Low levels of testosterone due to any
cause, may result in defective sperm production. Hypogonadism
is a severe deficiency observed in many individuals.
They show chain of sign and symptoms such as secondary
sexual characters, obesity, gynaecomazia, genetic
causes and tumors of the pituitary gland which can
prevent production of all reproductive hormones. Leydwig
cells are defective and unable to respond to testosterone.
Abnormalities of the thyroid or adrenal glands may
have an indirect effect on fertility.
Autoimmunity is a condition in which
the antibodies of the immune system attack specific
cells in the body, mistaking them for antigens. The
most common example of this is the development of
antibodies after vasectomy. Antibodies bind to specific
parts of the sperm such as the head or tail and cause
problems. Sperm may stick together and fail to interact
with cervical mucous or fail to penetrate the egg.
Physical structural abnormalities
Cryptorchidism is a failure of the testes to descend
from the abdomen into the scrotum during fetal life.
The genetic disease 'cystic fibrosis' of the testes,
that is the complete absence of the vas deferens.
Some men are born with structural problems, such as
blockage in the epididymis or ejaculatory ducts which
may affect fertility. Hypospadiasis, a birth defect
in which the urinary opening is on the underside of
the penis, which prevent sperm from reaching the cervix.