from poor egg quality, there are dozens of conditions
that can potentially cause female infertility. In
many cases, the problems can be medically or bypassed
through assisted reproductive techniques. The most
common causes of infertility in women are Ovulation
and Hormonal Disorders
uterine Bleeding is the prime cause of the woman’s
ovaries not producing eggs. Polycystic ovarian disease
is a hormonally based, very common condition characterized
by scanty or absence menstruation. The disease usually
forms multiple cysts in the ovaries. Thyroid disorders
also impair fertility. Egg production diminishes because
of age, other hormonal imbalances or other problems
disease and tubal block
Disease is the major cause of infertility worldwide.
PID includes a variety of infections caused by different
bacteria that can affect the uterus, fallopian tubes,
ovaries, appendix, parts of the intestine that lie
in the pelvic area, or, in the worst case, the entire
pelvic area causing peritonitis. The sites of infection
most often implicated in infertility are in the fallopian
tubes, a condition known as salpingitis. Infection
of the reproductive tract are usually caused by a
sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis and chlamydiasis.They
can also stem from a miscarriage, abortion and childbirth.
Severe or frequent attacks of PID can eventually cause
scarring, abscess formation and tubal damage that
result in infertility
Fibroids can interfere
with embryo implantation or fetal growth. High levels
of oestrogen seem to stimulate growth of fibroid tumors;
heredity may also be a factor in their development.
Endometriosis is estimated in many cases. This disorder
develops when fragments of the endometrial lining
are implanted in other areas of the pelvis. These
endometrial implants respond to hormonal changes,
slowly increasing in number and size with each menstrual
cycle and eventually causing scarring and inflammation.
Endometrial implanted in the ovaries or fallopian
tubes are particularly likely to cause infertility,
even if the endometriosis is mild.
Pelvic adhesions are usually caused by surgery or
infection. Pelvic adhesions are the scar tissues that
are formed between two or more internal organs. Infertility
can occur when the adhesions attach to the ovaries
or fallopian tubes.
Bands of scar tissue that bind together
after abdominal surgery or infection can restrict
the movement of ovaries and fallopian tubes and may
cause infertility. Laparoscopic surgery is less likely
to cause adhesions than standard open surgery
infertility is sometimes diagnosed when the woman's
immune system produces "anti-sperm antibodies"
that attack her partner's sperm.
Luteal phase defect
is a general term referring to problems in the corpus
luteum that result in inadequate production of progesterone.
As progesterone is necessary for thickening and preparing
the uterine lining, the ovum fails to implant in the
endometrium successfully. Younger women who experience
recurrent spontaneous abortions have a luteal phase
defect. Frequent abortions may impair a woman's fertility.
The cervix weakens and is unable to sustain a pregnancy.
Scar tissue may be formed inside the uterine cavity
after multiple abortions resulting in a closed uterus.
Infertility, therefore, results from implantation
of the woman's estrogen is manufactured in her ovaries,
minimum is produced in fat cells. Because a normal
hormonal balance is essential for the process of conception,
it is not surprising that extreme weight levels, either
high or low, can contribute to infertility especially
if their periods are irregular. A correlation has
been found between caffeine consumption and infertility.
Caffeine is found not only in coffee but also in tea,
many soft drinks, chocolate, and a number of common
medications can impair conception and also have adverse
effects on the developing fetus. Sexual practices
such as having multiple partners, not using condoms
and having intercourse during a period increases the
risk. The sexually transmitted organisms cause pelvic
inflammatory disease leading to infertility. Psychologic
factors may be a contributing risk factor for infertility.
One interesting small study reported a significantly
higher incidence of pregnancy loss in women who experienced
both high stress and prolonged menstrual cycles. Depression
may have a direct effect on hormones that regulate